‘Next few years are probably the most important in human history…’
Incheon, Republic of Korea, October 8, 2018: Limiting global warming to 1.5°C compared to 2°C could go hand in hand with ensuring a more sustainable and equitable society, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) said on October 8 in a ‘Special Report’.
The report will be the key scientific input into the coming Katowice Climate Change Conference in Poland in December 2018, when governments review the Paris Agreement to tackle climate change. Nevertheless, limiting global warming to 1.5°C would require rapid, far-reaching and unprecedented changes in all aspects of society with clear benefits to people and natural ecosystems, the IPCC said in a new assessment.
“With more than 6,000 scientific references cited and the dedicated contribution of thousands of expert and government reviewers worldwide, this important report testifies to the breadth and policy relevance of the IPCC,” said Hoesung Lee, Chair of the IPCC. Ninety-one authors and review editors from 40 countries prepared the IPCC report in response to an invitation from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) when it adopted the Paris Agreement in 2015.
“We are already seeing the consequences of 1°C of global warming through more extreme weather..”
“One of the key messages that comes out very strongly from this report is that we are already seeing the consequences of 1°C of global warming through more extreme weather, rising sea levels and diminishing Arctic sea ice, among other changes,” said Panmao Zhai, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group I.
The report highlights a number of climate change impacts that could be avoided by limiting global warming to 1.5°C compared to 2°C, or more. For instance, by 2100, global sea level rise would be 10 cm lower with global warming of 1.5°C compared with 2°C. The likelihood of an Arctic Ocean free of sea ice in summer would be once per century with global warming of 1.5°C, compared with at least once per decade with 2°C. Coral reefs would decline by 70-90 percent with global warming of 1.5°C, whereas virtually all (> 99 percent) would be lost with 2°C.
“Every extra bit of warming matters, especially since warming of 1.5°C or higher increases the risk associated with long-lasting or irreversible changes, such as the loss of some ecosystems,” said Hans-Otto Pörtner, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group II.
Limiting global warming would also give people and ecosystems more room to adapt and remain below relevant risk thresholds, added Pörtner. The report also examines pathways available to limit warming to 1.5°C, what it would take to achieve them and what the consequences could be. “The good news is that some of the kinds of actions that would be needed to limit global warming to 1.5°C are already underway around the world, but they would need to accelerate,” said Valerie Masson-Delmotte, Co-Chair of Working Group I.
Rapid transitions including the transport sector required
The report finds that limiting global warming to 1.5°C would require “rapid and far-reaching” transitions in land, energy, industry, buildings, transport, and cities. Global net human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) would need to fall by about 45 percent from 2010 levels by 2030, reaching ‘net zero’ around 2050. This means that any remaining emissions would need to be balanced by removing CO2 from the air.
“Limiting warming to 1.5°C is possible within the laws of chemistry and physics but doing so would require unprecedented changes,” said Jim Skea, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group III.
The decisions we make today are critical in ensuring a safe and sustainable world for everyone, both now and in the future, said Debra Roberts, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group II. “This report gives policymakers and practitioners the information they need to make decisions that tackle climate change while considering local context and people’s needs. The next few years are probably the most important in our history,” she said.
The IPCC is the leading world body for assessing the science related to climate change, its impacts and potential future risks, and possible response options. The report was prepared under the scientific leadership of all three IPCC working groups. Working Group I assesses the physical science basis of climate change; Working Group II addresses impacts, adaptation and vulnerability; and Working Group III deals with the mitigation of climate change.
The Paris Agreement adopted by 195 nations at the 21st Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC in December 2015 included the aim of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change by “holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.”
The report’s full name is ‘Global Warming of 1.5°C, an IPCC special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty’.
For more information, including links to the IPCC reports, go to: www.ipcc.ch
Zunum and Safran Join Forces to Deliver Hybrid-to-Electric Aircraft Dramatically reduced operating costs expected
Seattle, October 04, 2018: Zunum Aero, a pioneer in electric aviation, selected Safran Helicopter Engines (Bordes, France) for its hybrid-to-electric commercial aircraft, which will be available in the early 2020s. Safran Helicopter Engines will provide a new generation engine turbine to drive the Zunum ZA10’s electrical generator. This turbo-generator will power this 12-seat, hybrid-to-electric 700-mile commercial aircraft, driving extraordinarily low operating costs and offering unprecedented door-to-door travel times that are 2 to 4 times faster than today. Zunum expects to light up thirty thousand airports around the world with frequent and affordable air service.
In October 2017, Zunum revealed first details on its all new hybrid-to-electric aircraft family. These aircraft are designed to address a vast gap in transport infrastructure over regional ranges up to 1,000 miles, offering quiet, green and fast door-to-door service to tens of thousands of secondary airports around the world.
The Zunum aircraft under development, internally dubbed the ZA10, is the first in the company’s family of regional, hybrid-to-electric aircraft. It will be powered by dual power sources: propulsion batteries, and a Safran turboshaft engine from the 1,700 to 2,000 shaft horsepower (shp) Ardiden range. Safran is the world’s leading manufacturer of helicopter engines, with more than 72,000 produced since being founded. The manufacturer offers the widest range of helicopter turboshaft engines in the world and has more than 2,500 customers in 155 countries.
This new model, the Ardiden 3Z, will be used as a hybrid power source achieving demanding cost, efficiency and uptime requirements. It will be coupled with an electric generator, and the integrated turbo-generator will deliver 500kW of electric power to supplement the battery packs on key stages of flight and over long ranges. Upgrades such as advanced materials and integrated lifecycle management for hybrid service will dramatically reduce operating costs of the engine by extending the life of critical components.
The new aircraft will deliver breakthrough operating costs of 8 cents per available seat mile or $250 per hour for the aircraft, which is 60-80 percent lower than comparable conventional aircraft of comparable size. The ZA10 aircraft is designed to cruise and land on turbo-generator power alone, offering full redundancy.
Zunum’s selection of Safran is a critical step towards realizing the delivery of an economical, efficient hybrid-to-electric aircraft by the early 2020s. Because a key element of the MW-class hybrid-to-electric powertrain is a 500kW capable gas turbine that is compact, lightweight and highly efficient, to complement the propulsion batteries onboard, Safran’s proven expertise made the partnership a natural decision.
Revival of regional aviation
“Today marks a significant milestone on the path to delivery of the ZA10,” said Matt Knapp, co-founder and CTO of Zunum Aero. “The Zunum ZA10 aircraft will bring breakthrough performance to regional aviation, paving the way to fast, electrified, affordable high-speed air services to communities everywhere.”
Florent Chauvancy, Safran Helicopter Engines EVP OEM Sales, added: “The Ardiden 3Z represents a very powerful complement to the ZA10 because of its exceptional performance, along with low operating and maintenance costs. This announcement marks a new step forward in demonstrating Safran ability to offer hybrid propulsive solutions for tomorrow’s mobility solutions.”
Near-term milestones include ground and flight testing scheduled for 2019, as well delivery of the ZA10 aircraft targeted for the early 2020s.
Rockwell Turbo Commander 840 to be used as testbed
Zunum selected a Rockwell Turbo Commander 840 to modify for the flying testbed aircraft. The Rockwell Turbo Commander 840 has similar weight and performance to the ZA10, as well as excellent single-engine capability, enabling Zunum to modify and test in phases for a high-degree of safety.
In preparation for flight in 2019, Zunum Aero conducted ground tests of the hybrid-electric power system at Chicago-area facilities earlier this year. Through Q4 2018 and early 2019, the power system will continue to be upgraded and tested in stages to advance it for flight. Meanwhile, the Ardiden 3Z engine will undergo ground tests in France and US, ahead of integration with the flying testbed in 2019.
Modifications of the test aircraft began on schedule for a series of flights in the back half of 2019 leading to full hybrid-to-electric conversion with the Safran engine. The flying testbed will continue to be upgraded with successive prototypes until start of certification in 2020-21.
Founded in 2013, Zunum Aero is funded by Boeing HorizonX, JetBlue Technology Ventures and the State of Washington Clean Energy Fund. For more information visit http://www.zunum.aero or http://www.safran-helicopter-engines.com .
Source: Zunum Aero
Autonomous logistics platform will enable global, next-generation cargo air transportation
Chicago, June 26, 2018: Boeing today announced its investment in Matternet, a Menlo Park, Calif.-based startup pioneering safe, on-demand unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) delivery operations in urban environments. Matternet’s advanced logistics platform – combined with Boeing’s expertise in complex logistics, integration and manufacturing capabilities – will further enable reliable, efficient cargo air transportation.
Matternet became the world’s first company to receive authorization to launch UAV operations over densely populated areas in Switzerland in 2017. Leveraging its Matternet Station, M2 drone and Cloud platform, the company has achieved safe flights over densely populated areas and partnered with Swiss Post for on-demand deliveries of medical samples to hospitals in Switzerland.
“Matternet’s technology and proven track record make the development of a safe, global autonomous air mobility system a near-term reality,” said Brian Schettler, managing director of Boeing HorizonXVentures. “Our investment will allow Matternet to scale its operations while strengthening Boeing’s position as a leader in next-generation transportation solutions.”
In May 2018, Matternet was selected to participate in a joint U.S. Department of Transportation and Federal Aviation Administration program aimed at accelerating integration of unmanned aircraft into national airspace. As part of the program, Matternet will work with hospitals, universities and transportation agencies in California and North Carolina to facilitate on-demand delivery of medical supplies and samples.
Today, Matternet joined an initiative to shape the future of mobility as part of the World Economic Forum. The company will participate in the Drone Innovators Network to accelerate a safe, sustainable, global mobility system focused on improving people’s lives.
Boeing HorizonX Ventures led the $16 million, Series A investment in Matternet, with participation by Swiss Post, Sony Innovation Fund and Levitate Capital. The Boeing HorizonX Ventures investment portfolio is made up of companies specializing in technologies for aerospace and manufacturing innovations, including autonomous systems, energy and data storage, advanced materials, augmented reality systems and software, machine learning, hybrid-electric and hypersonic propulsion, and Internet of Things connectivity.
More than 70 % reduction in airframe noise achievable
Washington D.C., June 25, 2018: A series of NASA flight tests has successfully demonstrated technologies that achieve a significant reduction in the noise generated by aircraft and heard by communities near airports.
The Acoustic Research Measurement (ARM) flights, which concluded in May, at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in California, tested technology to address airframe noise, or noise that is produced by non-propulsive parts of the aircraft, during landing. The flights successfully combined several technologies to achieve a greater than 70 percent reduction in airframe noise.
While porous concepts for landing gear fairings have been studied before, NASA’s design was based on extensive computer simulations to produce the maximum amount of noise reduction without the penalty of increasing aerodynamic drag. The landing gear cavity was treated with a series of chevrons near its leading edge, and a net stretched across the opening to alter airflow, aligning it more with the wing.
“The number one public complaint the Federal Aviation Administration receives is about aircraft noise,” said Mehdi Khorrami, an aerospace scientist at NASA’s Langley Research Center in Virginia, and principal investigator for Acoustic Research Measurement. “NASA’s goal here was to reduce aircraft noise substantially in order to improve the quality of life for communities near airports. We are very confident that with the tested technologies we can substantially reduce total aircraft noise, and that could really make a lot of flights much quieter.”
NASA tested several experimental designs on various airframe components of a Gulfstream GIII research aircraft at Armstrong, including landing gear fairings and cavity treatments designed and developed at Langley, as well as the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) wing flap, which had previously been flight-tested to study aerodynamic efficiency. The aircraft flew at an altitude of 350 feet, over an 185-sensor microphone array deployed on the Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base in California.
The Landing Gear Noise Reduction technology element addressed airframe noise caused by airflow moving past the landing gear on approach. The experimental landing gear tested by NASA features fairings that are porous along their front, meaning they consist of many tiny holes that, in part, allow some of the air to flow through the fairing, while also deflecting some of the airflow around the landing gear.
Porous concepts have been studied before, but the unique design developed by NASA resulted from highly detailed computer simulations that led NASA engineers to what they believe is the ideal design for maximum noise reduction without increasing aerodynamic drag.
Another area of focus was landing gear cavities, also a known cause of airframe noise. These are the regions where the landing gear deploys from the main body of an aircraft, typically leaving a large cavity where airflow can get pulled in, creating noise. NASA applied two concepts to these sections, including a series of chevrons placed near the front of the cavity with a sound-absorbing foam at the trailing wall, as well as a net that stretched across the opening of the main landing gear cavity. This altered the airflow and reduced the noise resulting from the interactions between the air, the cavity walls, and its edges.
To reduce wing flap noise, NASA used an experimental, flexible flap that had previously been flown as part of the ACTE project, which investigated the potential for flexible, seamless flaps to increase aerodynamic efficiency. As opposed to conventional wing flaps that typically feature gaps between the flap and the main body of the wing, the ACTE flap, built by FlexSys Inc. of Ann Arbor, Michigan, is a seamless design that eliminates those gaps.
Significant reduction in aircraft noise must be realized in order for air transportation growth to maintain its current trend. The reduction of airframe noise using NASA technology is an important achievement in this effort, as it may lead to quieter aircraft, which will benefit communities near airports and foster expanded airport operations.
“This airframe noise reduction produced by NASA technology is definitely momentous, and the best part is that it directly benefits the public,” said ARM Project Manager Kevin Weinert. “While there are obvious potential economic gains for the industry, this benefits the people who live near major airports, and have to deal with the noise of aircraft coming in to land. This could greatly reduce the noise impact on these communities.”
For more information about NASA’s aeronautics research, please visit: https://www.nasa.gov/aeroresearch
Source: NASA Headquarters, Washington D.C. and Armstrong Flight Research Center, Edwards, California
Third runway one of Europe’s largest infrastructure projects
Heathrow, June 25, 208: In a landmark vote, the British Parliament backed expanding Heathrow Airport with a third runway, one of the UK’s most pressing infrastructure issues. Members of the British Parliament (MPs) from across political parties joined forces to clear the way for Heathrow to submit an application for development consent for the project – unlocking billions of pounds in growth and creating tens of thousands of new skilled jobs. If Heathrow is granted development consent, construction would begin in 2021 ahead of the new runway opening in 2026. Britain won’t have to wait long for the benefits of an expanded Heathrow. Over the next 12 months alone, the airport will sign £150 million worth of contracts with British businesses, creating 900 new jobs and 200 new apprenticeships.
Heathrow CEO John Holland-Kaye said: “Parliament has ended 50 years of debate by deciding that Heathrow expansion will go ahead. This vote will see us deliver more jobs, create a lasting legacy of skills for future generations and guarantee expansion is delivered responsibly.” Parliament’s historic vote is the culmination of a rigorous, evidence-based selection process – including review by the independent Airports Commission and the Government – which determined not only that expanding Heathrow offers the greatest benefit to the UK, but that it can be done sustainably.
Over the past six years, Heathrow has worked with local communities to design an expansion plan that treats local people fairly. In addition to the thousands of new jobs, Heathrow has also made binding commitments to deliver a £2.6bn compensation package to local residents, implement a 6.5 hour ban on scheduled night flights and a triple lock guarantee to meet air quality obligations.
The British Parliament’s vote secures a £14bn private investment – one of the largest private projects in Europe. With up to 40 new long-haul trading links, double the cargo capacity, more competition and choice for passengers and new domestic flights – an expanded Heathrow will make Britain the best connected country in the world and sends the strongest signal to date that Britain is open for business. Over the coming days, the Secretary of State for Transport is expected to designate the final Airports National Policy Statement approved by Parliament. This will set the policy framework for Heathrow’s northwest runway development consent application.
Heathrow is currently preparing to hold a second public consultation on its plans before submitting a development consent order application to the Planning Inspectorate, kick-starting an approval process expected to take 18 months.
Heathrow is Europe’s largest airport and one of the world’s top international aviation hubs counting more than 78 million passengers and over 1.7m tons of cargo a year.
Source: Heathrow Airport
Increased capacity and advantages in fuel and cost efficiency
Toulouse, June 18, 2018: Cathay Pacific Airways has become the second airline to operate the A350-1000, the world’s newest long-range widebody airliner. The airline took delivery of the aircraft at a special event in Toulouse, France.
The aircraft is the first of 20 Airbus A350-1000s ordered by Cathay Pacific and will join the carrier’s growing fleet of A350 XWB aircraft, which already includes 22 A350-900s. Both aircraft are complementary and provide for maximum commonality with unmatched operating efficiencies. Travelers will benefit from absolute well-being in the cabin, with more personal space, optimized cabin altitude, more fresh air, controlled temperature and humidity, integrated connectivity and the latest-generation in-flight entertainment system.
The aircraft will be deployed on the airline’s new non-stop route from Hong Kong to Washington D.C., representing the longest flight – approximately 17 hours – performed by any airline out of Hong Kong. Paul Loo, Cathay Pacific Chief Customer and Commercial Officer, said: “The A350-1000 has an incredible range, is remarkably fuel efficient and quiet, provides customers with an unsurpassed cabin environment and has extremely attractive operating economics.”
The A350-1000 is the latest member of Airbus’ leading widebody family, showing high level of commonality with the A350-900 with 95 percent common systems part numbers and the same Type Rating. As well as having a longer fuselage to accommodate 40 percent larger premium area (compared to the A350-900), the A350-1000 also features a modified wing trailing edge, new six-wheel main landing gears and more powerful Rolls-Royce Trent XWB-97 engines. To date, 11 customers from five continents have ordered a total of 168 A350-1000s.
Reducing fuel consumption by about 25 % per seat
Much more efficient working environment driving efficiency
Hamburg, June 14, 2018: Airbus has inaugurated the fourth Hamburg, Germany A320Family production line. Making use of digital technologies and a more flexible industrial setup, the innovative state-of-the-art line is a key enabler for ramping up the single-aisle program to 60 aircraft per month by mid-2019.
Frank Horch, Hamburg’s Senator of Economy, Transport and Innovation and Thomas Jarzombek, Federal Government Coordinator of German Aerospace Policy, witnessed the milestone together with Guillaume Faury, President Airbus Commercial Aircraft, and 500 distinguished guests at a special ceremony in Hamburg.
“The inauguration of our latest, most modern A320 production line opens a new chapter in efficient, digital aircraft manufacturing,” said Guillaume Faury. “With these new technologies we are building our aircraft more efficiently, a key enabler for higher production rates.”
The new production line features two seven-axis robots for automated fuselage drilling. These robots are able to drill almost 80 percent of holes on the upper side of the sections, which improves the ergonomic working environment. The robots also drill with higher accuracy to ensure a constant level of production quality resulting in less rework. Furthermore, the new line features an innovative layout and the use of mobile tooling platforms that navigate autonomously with laser trackers.
The new technologies and processes applied in the new line were designed and implemented in close coordination with employees and following the principle of Design Thinking. This resulted in a modern and much more efficient working environment with an optimized provisioning of all required materials at the work stations within a range of three meters, shorter walking distances and already unpacked components ready to mount. Many of the new technologies and processes will be transferred to other Airbus production lines worldwide.
With more than 14,000 A320ceo and A320neo Family aircraft ordered and over 8,100 delivered, the A320 is the world’s most successful single-aisle aircraft family. Incorporating the latest state-of-the-art technologies including new-generation engines and Sharklets, the A320neo Family provides 15 percent fuel savings at delivery and 20 percent by 2020. To date, the A320neo Family has captured nearly a 60 percent market share with more than 6,000 orders from 100 customers.
The A320 Family aircraft are manufactured globally, at Airbus sites in Europe, China and the US. In addition to the new production line, Airbus also inaugurated a larger and modernized Hamburg A320 Family delivery center with more customer areas, more efficient delivery processes and increased hospitality services.